# Percentage Volume Oscillator (PVO)

get_pvo(quotes, fast_periods=12, slow_periods=26, signal_periods=9)

## Parameters

name | type | notes |
---|---|---|

`quotes` | Iterable[Quote] | Iterable of the Quote class or its sub-class. • See here for usage with pandas.DataFrame |

`fast_periods` | int, default 12 | Number of periods (`F` ) for the faster moving average. Must be greater than 0. |

`slow_periods` | int, default 26 | Number of periods (`S` ) for the slower moving average. Must be greater than `fast_periods` . |

`signal_periods` | int, default 9 | Number of periods (`P` ) for the moving average of PVO. Must be greater than or equal to 0. |

### Historical quotes requirements

You must have at least `2×(S+P)`

or `S+P+100`

worth of `quotes`

, whichever is more, to cover the convergence periods. Since this uses a smoothing technique, we recommend you use at least `S+P+250`

data points prior to the intended usage date for better precision.

`quotes`

is an `Iterable[Quote]`

collection of historical price quotes. It should have a consistent frequency (day, hour, minute, etc). See the Guide for more information.

## Return

```
PVOResults[PVOResult]
```

- This method returns a time series of all available indicator values for the
`quotes`

provided. `PVOResults`

is just a list of`PVOResult`

.- It always returns the same number of elements as there are in the historical quotes.
- It does not return a single incremental indicator value.
- The first
`S-1`

slow periods will have`None`

values since there’s not enough data to calculate.

⚞

Convergence warning: The first`S+P+250`

periods will have decreasing magnitude, convergence-related precision errors that can be as high as ~5% deviation in indicator values for earlier periods.

### PVOResult

name | type | notes |
---|---|---|

`date` | datetime | Date |

`pvo` | float, Optional | Normalized difference between two Volume moving averages |

`signal` | float, Optional | Moving average of the `pvo` line |

`histogram` | float, Optional | Gap between of the `pvo` and `signal` line |

### Utilities

See Utilities and Helpers for more information.

## Example

```
from stock_indicators import indicators
# This method is NOT a part of the library.
quotes = get_historical_quotes("SPY")
# Calculate Pvo(12,26,9)
results = indicators.get_pvo(quotes, 12, 26, 9);
```

## About Percentage Volume Oscillator (PVO)

The Percentage Volume Oscillator is a simple oscillator view of two converging/diverging exponential moving averages of Volume. [Discuss] 💬